Wetherby War Memorial - The Great War 1914 - 1918

Private Edmund Frederick Durham

Introduction
Gunter, R B N
Durrant, C M
Weston, C G
Kelly, K G
Armitage, G J
Durrant, H M L
Hargreaves, J P
March, G
Dukes, W
Fowler, R
Westerman, H
Kirk, J C
Wiggins, T A
Telford, G
Harper, J W
Alexander, H W
Mason, T F
Wilkinson, W
Brown, C
Adkin, J
Barton, F
Hobman, A
Webster, A E
March, E A
Miller, G
Hannan, E
Utley, G
Walker, F
Bygrave, E W
Chapman, E
Varley, N W
Bowen, F J
Byrom, F
Backhouse, S
Dalby, M
Crossland, A
Crossley, J S
Dean, R
Frost, A E
Hodgson, F H
Holt, J
Hood, W H
Hill, W
Kitchen, T
Linfoot, E
Metcalfe, J C
Marsden, J
Pawson, W
Precious, G
Scutt, T G
Shields,P
Wiggins, J
Walker, E
Wood, A
Young, T
Pratt, W
Taylor, H
Dawson, G W
Lister, J
Binge, T
Atack, G
Durham, E F
Precious, G R
Wheelhouse Smith, W
Backhouse, H
Swann, J W
Burnsides, G A
Coles, W
Kelly, H W
Miles, J G
Tapsell, K
Acknowledgements
Dardanelles

23539, 40th Company, Labour Corps (Formerly 33759, Lincolnshire Regiment)
Died, 16th September 1917

Cemetery : Ypres Reservoir Cemetery, Ieper, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium
Grave Reference or Panel Number : I. E.1

Durhamwebsite.JPG

Son of John and Mary Durham of 13, Aston Street, Bramley, Leeds; husband of Eva Evans (late Durham) of Number 27, St. James Street, Wetherby.
Edmund Frederick Durham was born at Bramley, Leeds in 1890 to parents John, a Joiner/ Carpenter by profession, and Mary Durham, the family residing in premises located at 7, Mount Pleasant, Whitecote Hill, Bramley.
The 1901 Census records that two further sons had been born, Sidney Pearce aged 7 years and Arthur William aged 4 years respectively, the family having now relocated to Number 1, Beechwood View, Burley.
Ten years on the and the 1911 census details now record that the family had once again moved house, possibly due to the birth of a further child, Reginald, in 1903, however Edmund had not moved with the family to their new home at Aston Street but had instead journeyed south to take up employment as a Domestic Gardener.
Residing as a Boarder at Church Street, Brixworth, Northamptonshire, one would surmise that Edmund had found employment on the associated estate of Brixworth Hall. His father had a connection with the county having been born at Hannington to the east of Brixworth and residing for a number of years in the village of Pitsford located to the south. Family connections may therefore be the reason as to why Edmund relocated to Northamptonshire. 

Back To The North: Wetherby

The exact year that Edmund moved back to the north of England is unknown but prior to the outbreak of the Great War a newspaper article records that he had found employment as a Gardener at Linton Manor, Collingham. An analysis of the 1911 Census details records that Edmund's employer was one Charles Solomon Allaun, a Furniture Dealer of Linton Manor, Collingham Bridge.
Little is known about Edmund's early life in the district or even if he was residing in the town of Wetherby but in a little over five months after the commencement of hostilities Edmund no doubt received news that his brother Arthur William had enlisted into the ranks of the Royal Marine Light Infantry in January 1915, the only member of the Durham family other than Edmund to serve in the conflict.
Either through his connections in horticultural circles or spending his leisure time at Wetherby, Edmund met Eva Pratt, daughter of James Pratt, a Domestic Gardener, the family residing at St. James Street. Eva is recorded in the 1911 Census as a Servant in the employ of Reginald Henry Bowman, a Shoe Manufacturer of Moor Allerton House, Leeds.
On the 18th December 1915 the couple married at Wetherby moving into their marital home located at 27, St. James Street, Wetherby.

Enlistment

Edmund Frederick Durham was deemed to have enlisted into the Army on the 24th March 1916 under the auspices of the Military Service Act, conscription. Placed on the Reserve it would be nearly seven months before he was to be actually called up for military service.

Tragedy

Edmund's brother, now serving as Private Arthur William Durham, Royal Marine Light Infantry, PO/18357, the latter prefix denoting the Portsmouth Division, was now at this juncture serving on board H.M.S. Indefatigable, a Battlecruiser of the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron, the latter under the command of Rear Admiral William Christopher Pakenham.
It was on the 31st May 1916 that the British engaged the High Seas Fleet of the German Imperial Navy under the command of Admiral Reinhard Scheer at the Battle of Jutland. Shortly after the opening of the battle, H.M.S. Indefatigable was engaged by the German Battlecruiser Von der Tann, the latter along with the Battlecruiser Derfflinger, the ships responsible for the bombardment of both Scarborough and Whitby in December 1914.
A little after ten minutes of the opening of the battle, Indefatigable under the command of Captain Charles Fitzgerald Sowerby R.N. was hit by two or three shells fired from the Von der Tann, causing severe structural damage with the ship falling out of formation. Listing to port and sinking by the stern, at about 4.03 p.m. after further hits from the Von der Tann's 11 inch shells, a large explosion in the forward magazines of the ship erupted sending debris, smoke and flame into the atmosphere. Of the ships complement of 1019 men, there were only two survivors.
Arthur aged 19 years, is now commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial in addition to being commemorated on the Bramley Church Roll of Honour, Leeds. A tragic blow to the Durham family of a Bramley lad who had escaped the confines of employment in a Woolen Mill to answer his countries call.

Called To The Colours

With Eva heavily pregnant with their first child, it was on the 7th October 1916 that Edmund was summoned to York for a preliminary medical examination. His declared age was 27 years, height, 5 feet, 8 1/2 inches with a weight of 129lbs. One crucial factor however was discovered during the course of the medical examination, Edmund was found to be blind in his right eye. It is unclear if this was a permanent disability but some annotations included on his surviving service documents although difficult to decipher suggest some form of eye infection rendering him temporarily? unfit. As he was approved for service by the Lieutenant-Colonel of the Medical Board, one can only assume that he was deferred from military service until a later date.
On October 25th 1916, Edmund and Eva's first child was born, Arthur Cyril Durham, but in February 1917 the inevitable call up for military service arrived on the doorstep of their home.
Summoned to Harrogate on the 26th February 1917, after stating answers to various questions Edmund was approved for military service by the Approving Officer 14th Recruiting Area on the same day at York. Allocated the serial number 33759 (later re-numbered 23539) and posted to the 1st Labour Company, Lincolnshire Regiment, his movements in the days that followed are not recorded but on the 12th March 1917, Edmund along with his company sailed from Folkestone to Boulogne to join the British Expeditionary Force.

1st Labour Company, Lincolnshire Regiment

The exact date as to the formation of the 1st Labour Company is obscure however this company may have existed from about mid 1916. We do know through surviving service documents however the ages, medical conditions and occupations of those who enlisted. 
For example, and with a specific search criteria being placed on an enlistment taking place in Yorkshire, there was one William Carney. William, a Painter, attested for service in December 1915 and was placed on the Army Reserve. A married man and a resident of Burley, Leeds, Carney was mobilized on the 27th February 1917, allocated the serial number 23511, and posted to the B.E.F. on the 12th March 1917.
Percy Cavanagh, also from Leeds and a native of Armley. Graded medical category "B2" ( Authors note: Class A, "Fit For General Service," Class B, "Fit For Service Abroad But Not Fit For General Service," Class C, "Fit For Home Service Only." Class B would comprise would comprise of three classifications: B1, "Garrison Or Provisional Units," B2, "Labour Units Or On Garrison Or Regimental Outdoor Employment," B3, "Sedentary Work As Clerks Or Storemen Only") Percy was deemed to have enlisted in June 1916 and mobilized on the 26th February 1917. Allocated the serial number 23510, Percy would be posted to the ranks of the 1st Labour Company on the 28th February.
The town of Tadcaster would also provide one man who would eventually serve in the ranks of the Company. Frederick Clewer, of Bridge Street, a Tobacconist, was deemed to have enlisted in September 1916. Mobilized in February 1917, Frederick was also posted to the ranks of the 1st Labour Company and allocated the serial number 23522 only to be discharged in September 1917 after being wounded in a 'friendly fire' incident in September 1917.

Formation Of The 40th Company, Labour Corps

The origins of the 40th Company, Labour Corps, lie in the formation of the Corps itself. With the ever increasing amount of men both at home and abroad performing their duties in various capacities in a variety of labour units, it was soon realised that a restructure of organized labour was required to achieve a maximum level of efficiency and performance.
Formed in early 1917, the Labour Corps would be steadily re-organised both at home and abroad in the months that followed. Edmund and the men of the 1st Lincolnshire Labour Company would now be transferred and re-designated the 40th Labour Company on the 14th May 1917.
 
A further examination of the surviving service documents of men who served with the 40th Labour Company reveals that the Officer Commanding this company was one Major William Robert Rook, seconded for service with the Labour Corps from the 1/7th Battalion, Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire & Derbyshire Regiment). Rook, a Wine Merchant in civilian life and a native of Ruddington, near Nottingham, would be awarded the O.B.E. and the Territorial Decoration after the cessation of hostilities.
 
Operations On The Western Front

It is most unfortunate that no actual War Diary of the Company has survived however the Author will attempt to place the unit in various locations by an analysis of both surviving service documents and casualties sustained up until September 1917.
An examination of the surviving service documents of one Percy William Baxter, 23448, record that he was admitted to the 17th Casualty Clearing Station on the 17th May 1917 suffering from the effects of a hernia. The aforementioned C.C.S. at this period was located at Remy Sidings, close to the village of Lijssenthoek, a site established near a vital rail link by various medical units to deal with the evacuation of wounded from the Ypres Salient. One would surmise that Percy would have been sent to the nearest medical facility to hand so at the very least we can assume that the 40th Labour Company were operating in this area or locality.
 
The tasks performed by a Labour Company varied from road building, the construction of railways of various gauge, and the formation of dumps to store a variety of materiel. At times in the performance of their duties the men were often exposed to enemy shell fire even whilst operating in the rear areas. It was on the 21st June 1917 that one man fell victim to what one would suspect was a shell fired from German long range artillery. Private Patrick McGlade, 33657, a native of Middlesborough, had originally joined the ranks of the 1st Lincolnshire Labour Company before being transferred to the newly formed 40th Labour Company and renumbered 23691. Patrick now lies in Poperinghe New Military Cemetery, Belgium, along with many a Labour Corps man who had fallen victim to enemy artillery.

LCweb.JPG
The Labour Corps At Work, Source, "I Was There," Volume Two. Original Photo, I.W.M.

In preparation for the forth coming offensive, Third Ypres as the British Nomenclature Committee would later define this series of battles, work behind the lines intensified. New roads were built along with railway lines, dumps for stores and ammunition were created as well as pipe lines laid to supply water to the vast amounts of men and associated transport that began to assemble in the Salient.
As a prelude to the offensive, the Messines Ridge had been seized in June by the Second Army after the detonation of 19 mines under the German positions. It was then that the offensive halted to allow preparations to be made for the continuation of the main battle by the Fifth Army under the command of General Sir Hubert Gough. The offensive finally commenced on the 31st July however this delay, over six weeks in duration, would have a serious impact on operations as a whole. Third Ypres would finally grind to a halt in November in the mud of Passchendaele with the Allies sustaining an estimated 250,000 casualties.

August: The Battle Rages On

Despite early success of the advance to the north, in the south, progress had been halted across the Gheluvelt Plateau due to a number of factors. Shell torn terrain impeded the advance and enemy resistance had stiffened with numerous counter-attacks being conducted supported by heavy artillery. As the line of advance wavered, a tactical withdrawal was made to enable a line of defence to be consolidated but it was now that another enemy appeared to transform the battlefield and halt operations, heavy rain.
In the rear areas, the activities of the Labour Companies intensified as a new assault was to be launched once again on the Gheluvelt Plateau on the 10th August. Whilst performing duties of an unknown nature the day previous to the attack, possibly in the area of Vlamertinghe to the west of Ypres, disaster befell the 40th Labour Company. One would surmise that the company, or at least a party of the latter, were subjected to the attentions of German long range artillery that resulted in the deaths of five men and the wounding of one Other Rank:
Private Percy William Baxter, 23448, a native of Hull, aged 39 years
Private Harry Brown, 23461, a native of Newcastle-on-Tyne, aged 28 years
Private Tom Harry Downes, 23540, a native of Salterhebble, Halifax, aged 42 years
Private Joseph Dyson, 23544, a native of New Mills, Stockport, aged 36 years
Private Raistrick Holmes, 23613, a native of Thornton, Yorkshire, aged 21 years
All these men are now buried in Vlamertinghe New Military Cemetery.
Private Frederick Hamilton, 23609, would succumb to his wounds the following day. Frederick, a married man with five children, resided at premises located at 19 Baden Street, Harrogate. Employed as a Postman, Frederick would originally enlist into the ranks of the 5th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment on the 2nd September 1914. Due to a serious medical condition he was transferred to the Second Line Territorial Battalion, the 2/5th, on the 10th April 1915. Transferred from the ranks of the West Yorkshire Regiment and serving at home with reserve battalions of the South Staffs. and the Depot Labour Companies of the Durham Light Infantry, he would be posted overseas to join the British Expeditionary Force on the 30th April 1917. On arrival at Boulogne, France, it would appear that Frederick spent some time at an Infantry Base Depot, possibly the 9th I.B.D. before being transferred to the ranks of the 1st Labour Company, Lincolnshire Regiment, ultimately being transferred to the ranks of the  40th Labour Company on the 14th May 1917. Frederick Hamilton, aged 29 years, now lies in Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery.

September: Continuation Of The Offensive

With an improvement in the weather conditions, the shell torn ground began to dry. The opportunity now presented itself to continue the offensive over more favourable ground with the capture of the Gheluvelt Plateau being one of the primary objectives. Command of the Second Army now passed to General Sir Herbert Plumer who had formulated a specific plan of attack relying on innovative artillery and infantry tactics that was to be assisted by the advance of the Fifth Army to the north. The attack was to be conducted in a series of movements so as to allow adequate supplies and artillery to be moved forward to interdict anticipated enemy counter-attacks.
With the emphasis being placed on the philosophy that "artillery conquers and that infantry occupies," Plumer requested that any further operations cease to allow the build up of men and materiel. In addition, the prosecution of a successful advance would require the construction of advance artillery emplacements, light railways and the laying of a complex system of telephonic communications. A system of what were in effect Corduroy Roads, roads constructed from wood as opposed to that comprising of a metalled surface, were to be built to assist forward movement of guns and supplies. The offensive, the Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, was set to commence on the 20th September 1917. Their was to be no delay as the mechanism now set in motion ran to a strict timetable. The Labour Companies would now be expected, as always, to play their part and complete their allocated tasks.

Sunday, 16th September 1917: The Death Of Private Edmund Frederick Durham

The only evidence to describe the circumstances surrounding the death of Edmund are to be found in a newspaper article dated the 2nd October 1917 that states the simple fact that he was killed by the fall of a shell.
After a request for information via the The Great War Forum as to the location of the 40th Labour Company on the day in question, the Author received two replies. Ian Bowbrick kindly informed the Author that the Company came under the the command of the Officer Commanding Durham Light Infantry. Ivor Lee, co-author with John Starling of the book "No Labour, No Battle" more specifically placed the group in which the 40th Company served as having its Headquarters at Sheet 28, G.c.6. 2.2. however the precise location for the company on the 16th September is unknown.

AdminMap1918.jpg
Extract of Sheet 28. Army Administrative Situation Map Dated 1st February 1918

Although the above map extract is dated to early 1918, one can surmise that there may have been a similar if not identical establishment in the vicinity of Red Farm in September 1917. The letter "R," north of the latter place, denotes the location of a Rest Station. Similarly the annotation "H," to the north-east denotes the site of Horse Troughs indicating that a maximum of 1000 horses could be watered at this location per day. The camp as a whole, is located to the north of a broad gauge railway, running parallel, west to east, of the Poperinghe - Vlamertinghe - Ypres Road.
 
Of the two casualties sustained by the 40th Labour Company on the 16th September 1917, one can only assume that the company were at work either on the road or on the railway line between Poperinghe and Ypres. Edmund as we now know, lies at rest in Ypres Reservoir Cemetery located in the town of Ieper (Ypres).
Private James Howie, 123330, wounded in the explosion, had previously served with the 77th, Training Reserve Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers. Originally numbered TR/2/20792, James, a native of Mauchline, Ayrshire, was transferred to the 40th Labour Company and renumbered 123330 however the date of his transfer to the Labour Corps is unknown. Evacuated to either the 3rd Australian or 44th Casualty Clearing Stations located at Poperinghe, James, aged 41 years, succumbed to his wounds on the same day and now lies in Nine Elms British Cemetery.
 
Ypres Reservoir Cemetery
 
Three cemeteries were originally constructed for the burial of the dead near the western gate of the walled town of Ypres (Ieper). Two cemeteries were located between the prison and the reservoir, the third, occupying a position to the north of the prison. The latter, at first recorded as the "Cemetery North of the Prison" was later designated as "Ypres Reservoir North Cemetery" and finally Ypres Reservoir Cemetery, the two cemeteries between the prison and the reservoir being concentrated into this burial ground.
Burials commenced in the cemetery in October 1915 by units in the line and field ambulances until after the Armistice when the cemetery contained 1099 burials. The cemetery was enlarged by the concentration of burials from various locations in the salient and by the concentration of three smaller burial grounds from the vicinity. Ypres Reservoir Cemetery now contains 2,613 Commonwealth servicemen either buried or commemorated within its boundaries of which 1,034 of the burials are unidentified.    

Durham1.JPG