Wetherby War Memorial - The Great War 1914 - 1918

Private Thomas Young

Gunter, R B N
Durrant, C M
Weston, C G
Kelly, K G
Armitage, G J
Durrant, H M L
Hargreaves, J P
March, G
Dukes, W
Fowler, R
Westerman, H
Kirk, J C
Wiggins, T A
Telford, G
Harper, J W
Alexander, H W
Mason, T F
Wilkinson, W
Brown, C
Adkin, J
Barton, F
Hobman, A
Webster, A E
March, E A
Miller, G
Hannan, E
Utley, G
Walker, F
Bygrave, E W
Chapman, E
Varley, N W
Bowen, F J
Byrom, F
Backhouse, S
Dalby, M
Crossland, A
Crossley, J S
Dean, R
Frost, A E
Hodgson, F H
Holt, J
Hood, W H
Hill, W
Kitchen, T
Linfoot, E
Metcalfe, J C
Marsden, J
Pawson, W
Precious, G
Scutt, T G
Wiggins, J
Walker, E
Wood, A
Young, T
Pratt, W
Taylor, H
Dawson, G W
Lister, J
Binge, T
Atack, G
Durham, E F
Precious, G R
Wheelhouse Smith, W
Backhouse, H
Swann, J W
Burnsides, G A
Coles, W
Kelly, H W
Miles, J G
Tapsell, K

2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment
Died, 12th December 1914

Cemetery : Le Touret Memorial, Pas-de-Calais, France
Grave Reference or Panel Number : Panel 9 and 10

Son of William and Elizabeth Young of Fox Yard, Wetherby.
Tom was born at Bilton-in-Ainsty circa 1882 to parents William, occupation, a Farm Labourer, and Elizabeth Young, the family residing in 1881 in the ancient hamlet of Syningthwaite located between Bilton and Walton. Ultimately one of ten children of which three would unfortunately die, at some point between the years 1891 - 1901, possibly 1899, the family relocated to Wetherby, their residence being established in premises located at Number 26, Fox Yard, off Bank Street.
In the 1901 Census, there is no record of Tom residing at his parents address however surviving pension records denote his occupation before enlistment as that of a Farmer, more accurately I surmise, employed as an Agricultural Labourer.
Enlistment & Early Service
An analysis of the serial number issued, 8060, and the Soldiers Effects records indicates that Tom enlisted into the British Army on or about the 5th of December 1905 at York. After undergoing a routine medical examination to determine height, weight, chest expansion and eyesight, he was accepted for military service and subsequently posted to the ranks of the West Yorkshire Regiment. Initial service was then conducted at the Regimental Depot located at York and upon completion of his training he was then posted to the 1st Battalion of the Regiment, a Regular Army Battalion who at this juncture were stationed in India. The actual date for Tom's posting overseas is not known however in the 1911 Census recorded in India, he is located along with his battalion at Connaught Barracks, Rawalpindi in the Punjab, Officer Commanding, Colonel Walter de Sausmarez Cayley.
In late December 1911, the battalion returned to the United Kingdom onboard the H.M.T. "Rewa" after nearly seventeen years service overseas. Docking at Southampton on the 29th, the battalion then proceeded into quarters at Whittington Barracks, Lichfield. Tom however was not amongst their number as whilst docking at Malta on the 21st of December, the ship disembarked 320 men of the West Yorkshire Regiment. (Source:- The Scotsman dated the 21st of December 1911). The Yorkshire Post dated the 30th of December 1911 also records this transfer of men:-
"The regiment, which is under the command of Colonel W. de S. Cayley, has at present a total strength of 651 of all ranks, and 304 men were left in Malta for transfer to the 2nd Battalion, which was recently in Leeds during the railway strike, and which is to leave England next month for the Mediterranean".
So, Tom was now effectively transferred to the 2nd Battalion who were at this juncture stationed at Colchester preparing for their imminent departure for foreign climes. With orders to relieve the 2nd Battalion, Devonshire Regiment who were to proceed to Egypt, it was on the 10th of January 1912 that the 2nd West Yorkshire's departed their barracks and journeyed to Southampton. Embarking on the SS "Rewa," the battalion, Officer Commanding Lieutenant-Colonel Henry O'Donnell, duly arrived at Malta on the 17th of January. One former pupil of the Western Council School, Harrogate, Lance-Corporal Walter Elsworth, 8796, describes in a lengthy letter printed in the Knaresborough Post dated the 24th of February 1912 his experiences of embarkation and the journey to Malta, and of his experiences on the island:- 
"Fort Manoel, Malta,
February 1st, 1912.
Dear Sir, - Now that we are settled in our new quarters, I shall take much pleasure in writing to let you know how I am getting on, also a little about the island upon which I find myself deposited. First of all, I shall have to tell you about our passage out here, then try and explain to you how "trooping" and embarking is carried out. On January 10th we arrived at Southampton to embark on H.M. troopship Rewa and this is the systematic way we went to work. I say "systematic" because everything in the Army is worked out on a system, hence the smooth way that apparently big schemes are carried out without the least trouble or lack of discipline. Firstly, all the heavy baggage and soldiers kits are stowed away in the ship's hold, with the few exceptions of things for use during the voyage, such as men's toilet and cleaning requisites, band instruments, and various games. This done, everyone is "fell in" on the landing-stage, and "told off" in messes of 18, each mess being in charge of a N.C.O. I am using a little military phraseology because I know you will be able to understand it by your previous experience of the Army and its ways. I may here state that messing on board a troopship is usually very great "messes" indeed. To resume, after all are told off they embark to the strains of "Auld lang syne" and "The girl he left behind him" etc. then proceed to their own mess tables to partake of a nice meal which afterwards is required to "feed the fishes" with. Sea sickness was quite the "fashion" for the first couple of days and the better sailors amongst us had quite a "picnic" out of their comrades uneaten rations. Needless to say that I did not figure with the above lucky bounders as I was too busy on the "troop deck" with my head hung over the taff-rail. When the majority were better, gymnastic parades came into swing, and everyone volunteered for these, as not only was it good for all, but it varied the monotony of continual sea and sky; in short, it was "something to do." When details were published the following evening, we were informed that the "high seas mail" would pass us sometime within the next 24 hours, and a rush was made on the grocery bar for notepaper and stamps. This, I may say, was the first place that your present to me proved itself very useful indeed. Eventually we sighted Malta, and steamed into the grand harbour at Valletta, and disembarking was carried out with equally as much system and order as the embarking at Southampton. Here the regiment spit up into halves; one-half went to Floriana, and our half came here to man Fort Manoel. Of course all this happened in the dark, so we did not see much of our new station, but as soon as the day dawned the following morning everyone turned out on the balcony to get a glimpse of their new "home." The whole of the houses here, with the exception of places of note, such as the churches, synagogues, and the Governor's palace, are built of white stone, and have got flat roofs; the latter boast of gold-painted domes and an occasional square tower. The inhabitants are a very queer race indeed, and nearly all are bare-footed. Every man, woman and child that can possibly hold a pipe in their teeth smokes. It really does seem strange to one just leaving England to see boys and girls of eight and nine years old with an old clay in their mouths, especially when the Tobacco and Drugs Act is in force at home. I suppose it is the cheapness of the weed that makes smoking so popular; tobacco is only 1d. per oz. and cigarettes are 100 for 4d., cigars 60 for 6d. It almost makes me wish I smoked myself. Oranges are also dirt cheap; you can obtain the finest oranges or Tangerines at 8 and 10 for 1d. You may guess by this that no soldier is short of his after dinner "dessert." All this sounds in our favour regarding cheapness but on the other hand one cannot exist on oranges and tobacco and any groceries or bread costs twice as much as it does at home. Of course all these things are imported. Even newspapers cost twice as much as they are marked. One more strange fact I must mention to you before I close; that is about the herds of goats which parade the streets loose all the day, eating anything in the way of refuse they can pick up. Old paper seems to be quite a treat for them, and an old match-box is apparently quite a luxury. The goat's milk vendor does not go round his customers with a cart and can like our milkmen, but he drives the whole of the herd with him and milks a goat straight into his customer's jug or basin - in the lower parts of an old cocoa tin or "bully-beef" can serves this purpose. How would you like this way in England? Another strange being is the "cabby." His vehicle is called a "carrozine" and a very quaint mode of travel it is too. It is drawn by a mule, which is quite as stupid as any mule you have got in England. The fare for this is 4d., no matter how far you go or how long you charter the carrozine for - 4d. is the fare. You must excuse me now, sir, as I have quite a lot of clerical work to do regimentally. On this plea and with your permission, I will close with kindest regards to the teachers and scholars, also hoping you will not forget how eagerly-looked for a letter from England is.
I am, Sir,
Your old and affectionate scholar,
Lance-Corpl., "E" Company, 2nd P.W.O. West Yorks. Regt."      
Malta 1912
Based at both Fort Manoel and Floriana Barracks, the first official duties performed by the battalion were conducted on the 24th of January when the King and Queen arrived at Malta onboard the requisitioned "Medina". Escorted by the cruisers "Natal", "Cochrane" and "Defence", the Royal Yacht entered Valetta Harbour with the Royal Party disembarking at about 11.30 a.m. After inspecting a Guard of Honour performed by the 2nd Gloucestershire Regiment, the party were then entertained by a march past led by General Sir Leslie Rundle, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Malta, followed by the Staff of his Headquarters. The parade was then followed by three hundred French seamen from the battleships "Danton," "Justice" and "Verite" accompanied by their officers. A naval brigade then marched past with their field guns whereupon the King then received the salute of the seamen. With General Rundle now placing himself at the head of the Royal Garrison Artillery, these were led by followed by the Royal Engineers, 2nd West Yorkshire's, 2nd Gloucestershire Regiment, 2nd Northamptonshire Regiment, 1st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and finally the 2nd Scottish Rifles. (Source:- The Army And Navy Gazette dated the 27th of January 1912).
As the battalion settled in to their new surroundings, it was in February that there was a change in command. On the 23rd of the month, Colonel O'Donnell had completed four years in command of the 2nd Battalion and was subsequently placed on the 'Half-pay' List, Major George Fraser Phillips being the next senior officer and Second-in-Command now being appointed the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and assuming command of the battalion. To replace Phillips as Second-in Command, Major Francis William Towsey was appointed, an 'Old Sweat' who had witnessed service in various campaigns including the Boer War.
In March and due to a complex political situation arising in Crete relating to a union of the island with Greece, it was rumoured that the 2nd West Yorkshire's were to be despatched to the island by the Protective Powers, i.e. England, France, Italy and Russia, who had decided upon a military reoccupation of Crete. Although these 'rumours' were persistent and the West Yorkshire's had received orders to hold itself in a state of readiness, in 'official circles' it was reported freely that the latter knew of nothing of any such decision.
On the 6th of May, the Regimental Colour was trooped by the 2nd Battalion in commemoration of the King's accession in the presence of General Rundle. In addition to the Governor and Commander-in-Chief, forty representatives of the Command were also included in the parade which was described by The Globe dated the 6th of May 1912 as a "brilliant spectacle" which was witnessed by a vast concourse of onlookers.
It was on the 9th of July 1912 that Lance-Corporal Elsworth, "Signallers," put pen to paper once again from Fort Manoel. Writing to his old Headmaster Mr. James Whittaker Hammond at the Western Council School, Harrogate, he describes his travels around the island of Malta and some of the daily routine experienced by the men of the 2nd West Yorkshire's. Published in the Knaresborough Post dated the 27th of July, the letter reads as follows:-
"Dear Sir, - You will wonder what on earth has happened to me, as I have not written to you for three or four months, but I have been trying to better my knowledge of Malta and its people, so as to be able to construct an interesting letter for your perusal.
Since I wrote to you last I have travelled the length and breadth of Malta (not much, 'tis true), and I have also paid a three days visit to the Island of Gozo, which is the next largest of the Maltese Islands. Little did I think in my schooldays that I should visit the Colony whose emblem I so proudly wore in my cap as a school badge some ten or twelve years ago. But, of course, one cannot control one's destiny, and here I am in one of Britain's most treasured possessions - Malta! Whoever named Malta as the "Clapham Junction of the Mediterranean" was perfectly right in doing so, as the majority of eastward or homeward bound vessels call here for coaling, also to put off passengers for the Continent and Northern Africa. For this purpose Malta is invaluable. Although Gibraltar is undoubtedly the "key of the Mediterranean," Malta constitutes the "lock." And judging by the huge guns and fortifications, I should say if put to the test, Malta would make a very formidable "lock" indeed. The various harbours are indeed one of Dame Nature's most treasured gifts to the island, and are impenetrable to the most fierce storm.
Now, I want to say a little about the inhabitants. It perhaps will be as well to mention that the proper Maltese race do not reside in Malta at all, but they belong to the Island of Gozo, and an inhabitant of Gozo considers himself somewhat superior to an inhabitant of Malta. Personally, I don't see much difference in the class. Gozo is undoubtedly the more productive island of the two, not only for vegetation, but for eggs, mutton and goat's milk. In fact, I think the people of Gozo are much more enterprising than those of Malta. The majority of the people are Roman Catholics and they are very loyal to their religion indeed. I have seen them swimming with a sacred cross or rosary beads strung round their necks, and any Englishman who declares to them that he is a Roman Catholic is thought a good deal of - in brief, he is "quids in." About a fortnight ago they held a religious festival called "The feast of St. Paul," in commemoration of the time St. Paul was wrecked on the island. (There is a "St. Paul's Bay" here, which marks the exact spot.) Fireworks were displayed on the tops of churches, reminding one of the popular Saturday night displays at the Kursaal, and outside the porticos were hung various fairy lanterns and gaudy flags and tapestries. On the whole a church looked like some picture palace in England wishing to boom an exciting and most thrilling "cowboy and Indians" film they had on exhibition within.
I will now tell you what it feels like to "soldier" out here. Soldiering abroad is all right as far as it goes, but to a chap like myself who has served four years at home, and been used to an annual leave and several week-end passes during the year, the continual military routine gets somewhat monotonous. To counteract this, the War Office authorities have arranged for "rest camps" to be pitched in various parts of the country or colony in which one might be serving. This year several of our companies go to a place called Ghian Tuffehia (sic) for six weeks. (Authors note:- Ghajn Tuffieha on the north-west coast of Malta). If you have any difficulty to pronounce the words Ghian Tuffehia, just say "I interfere" then you will have the correct pronunciation. This is one of the few words with a silent "G." Even whilst under canvas at Ghian Tuffehia, the strict order of military discipline and routine must be partly adhered to. The only relaxation is shown in small offences known in the service as "minor offences." Of course, it must be understood that so-called "crimes" in the Army would be passed over as mere details in the civil world and probably laughed at, but in the Army such things are looked at from an entirely different point of view. In civil life a man would be able to go about with as many days' growth of whiskers on his face as he liked, also if his boots lacked a dazzling shine it would matter to no one, but here it is quite different. After all I think it is best to be so, as cleanliness becomes everyone, either soldier or civilian. "Obedience" is undoubtedly the first duty of a soldier, hence all this apparent "red tape" and almost impossible discipline. It must not be thought that these "rest camps" comprise a six weeks' "loaf" for the troops, as it most certainly does not. We have to keep fit and ready for emergency, and a climate like this of Malta is apt to give a chap a liver the size of a football if exercise is not freely indulged in. Therefore to prevent this, we have a certain amount of parades to accomplish. These mostly consist of gymnastics, running, swimming and an occasional drill parade; all these are compulsory. Then, of course, we get cricket, quoits, and various other outdoor games, which give recreation as well as excercise. Owing to the sun being so hot the times for bathing are set out for us. One stands a good chance of a sunstroke if he enters the water between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. Indeed it is dangerous to be out of doors this weather, unless one's head is jambed firmly into a tropical sun helmet.
I read an account of the prize distribution in the "Harrogate Advertiser," and I was very pleased with my old school's records. I was especially pleased to hear that the school had risen a "Titanic Fund" on their own, as I thought it was a very needful case, also a most terrible disaster. No doubt you will read this letter to the scholars, and in so doing I wish you to express my kindest regards to all, also to yourself and the teachers, hoping all are enjoying the same good health as your affectionate old scholar.
Regarding the number of letters that were published in the local press, Walter, as a consequence, had his "leg was pulled" by a number of his friends, one of them being a close acquaintance, Private Horace Ferrari, 9132, of Valley Mount, Harrogate. It is more than apparent through Elsworth's letters that despite the battalion being posted overseas to a 'Foreign Station,' discipline was maintained in the best traditions of the Regiment. During the months to come and with tensions rising against the Ottoman Empire that would eventually result in the First Balkan War, at Malta, the 'question' of Crete rose once again in October when it was reported that four companies of the Scottish Rifles, Gloucestershire Regiment and the West Yorkshire's were to be placed in a state of readiness to be despatched to Crete. Placed under orders to await the arrival of the H.M.T. "Rohilla" at Malta on the 20th of October, once again, orders were rescinded, the 2nd West Yorkshire's subsequently remaining on the island.
Although there appears to be no accounts at least in the local press of how the battalion spent Christmas on the island, unfortunately on Christmas Day itself, Private Reginald Alfred Stedman, 4043, a native of Reading, died. Enlisting in 1894, Reginald had been previously employed as a Clerk and died of unknown causes aged 40 years. Buried two days later in Pieta Military Cemetery                  

Floriana Barracks. Courtesy Of The Geneanet Community.


As the First Balkan War continued witnessing numerous victories by the combined armies of the Balkan League over the Ottoman Empire, it was at the close of January that Tom and the men of the battalion witnessed the arrival of Rear-Admiral Ernest Charle Thomas Troubridge C.M.G., M.V.O., onboard the H.M.S. "Defence". Hoisting his flag on the ship, Troubridge then took command of the First Mediterranean Cruiser Squadron to increase yet further the naval presence already in Mediterranean waters, British naval forces being placed under the overall command of Admiral Sir Archibald Berkeley Milne, Bart., G.C.V.O., K.C.B.

Politically, the British took an official stance of supporting the integrity of the Ottoman Empire however with the threat of Russian ambitions in this theatre, negotiations were conducted with both the Greeks and the Bulgarians. Know doubt to support this 'diplomacy,' it was on the 14th of February that the Ottoman cruiser the "Hamidieh" was allowed to put in to Malta due to unfavourable weather conditions. Under the command of Captain Rauf Orbay, the "Hamidieh" had previously broken through a Greek naval blockade of the Dardanelles to raid shipping in the Aegean Sea with good effect. Attracting a large crowd of Greek inhabitants of the island as onlookers, Orbay was notified that the ship was only allowed to stay for a period of twenty-four hours and after an extension was declined, the cruiser finally departed Malta on the night of the 16th of February.

At the close of the month, the battalion witnessed the arrival of one Captain George Lytton Crossman D.S.O. An experienced officer who had witnessed service in the South African War, in recognition of services in the latter conflict he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Attached to the 1st Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment at Lichfield, he was posted overseas to Malta to rejoin his 'old' battalion and was subsequently appointed command of a company.

It was in March 1913 that the island of Malta was granted a most prestigious honor when it was selected to hold the 24th International Eucharistic Congress. On the 22nd of April, Cardinal Domenico Ferrata, Legate of His Holiness Pope Pius X, arrived at Malta with his extensive entourage on board the British torpedo-gunboat H.M.S. "Hussar". With the island decorated with flags and flowers, the Congress was formally inaugurated on the 24th at the impressive Rotunda of Mosta, the Cardinal and his suite lunching with General Sir Rundle at the Palace. As hundreds of visitors began to arrive, there were large processions, one notable one being performed by over 15,000 children who marched through the streets of Valetta chanting hyms. Before the closing of the Congress on the 27th of April, the day previous had witnessed the act of the "Blessing of the Sea" from the Barracca, the highest point overlooking the Grand Harbour. With multitudes of people in attendance and with the waters of the harbour dotted by all manner of craft, upon completion of the act the air was rent by continuous applause and the sounding of syrens and the ringing of church bells.

More ceremonial duties were to be performed when on the 22nd of May the Admiralty yacht the "Enchantress" arrived in the Grand Harbour. On board the yacht were the Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, and the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill respectively. Upon entering the harbour, the battlecruiser H.M.S. "Inflexible" fired a salute and after the party disembarked at noon, a guard of honour was mounted by the 2nd West Yorkshire's accompanied by their Regimental Band at the Custom House. A further salute was then fired before the party then paid an official visit to the Governor, General Sir Rundle, whereupon Churchill accompanied by the Third Sea Lord, Rear-Admiral Archibald Gordon Henry Wilson Moore, C.B., C.V.O., and members of the Board of the Admiralty then proceeded to inspect the dockyards and naval establishments and a new wireless station established at Rinella. Later that evening, the party were entertained by the Governor at the Palace however the day had not been without incident, the men employed in the dockyards presenting petitions for an increase in wages, this no doubt being duly noted by the First Lord of the Admiralty.             

The Dundee Evening Telegraph, 28th Of May 1913
The Guard Of Honour, 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment

With an International Force already present at Scutari due to the forced evacuation by Montenegrin forces in May, it was on the night of the 6th of June 1913 that orders were issued to the 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment, to proceed to Scutari. As a consequence of these orders, a detachment numbering 350 men under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Phillips departed Malta on the 7th of June on the cruiser H.M.S. Black Prince. Accompanying the detachment were also elements of both the Army Service and Royal Army Medical Corps, the objective, to relieve the British Naval Detachment already in occupation however the duration of the occupation was at this juncture yet to be determined. With the International Force at Scutari under the command of Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, the Regimental Band was also despatched from Malta on the 16th of June, Colonel Phillips assuming command of the Scutari Garrison.
Upon Scutari being divided in to five districts, each governed by one member of the International Force, one of the first tasks facing Phillips was to gain the confidence of the local populace. Forging relations with local mountain tribes, this was made more difficult by the presence of long outstanding 'blood fueds' but Phillips applied diplomacy and a certain degree of tact. In one instance, Phillips was recorded as having to deal with one 'difficult' tribe who he offered his jurisdiction and protection, should they come in to the 'fold'. The Westminster Gazette dated the 23rd of July 1914 reported this meeting:-
"It is said that one outstanding tribe demanded a personal interview preparatory to possible inclusion, and that Colonel Phillips seized the golden opportunity of telling them that there would have to be fewer blood-feuds in the future. "But what would you do," replied the Albanian chief, "if your enemy were always lurking behind a rock and slowly creeping and creeping towards you and suddenly jumping out at you and killing you?" 
"Why, I would shoot him of course" said the Colonel. Whereupon the whole Albanian tribe discharged their rifles into the air and yelled: "We will be your men; you are the man we want to follow."
Repairing and rebuilding the infrastructure was of paramount importance, the West Yorkshire's being billeted in the 'old' Turkish Barracks located in the town. Leisure activities were virtually non existent however the Regimental Band provided entertainment on occassions to the rather bemused populace. The year of 1914 would witness more complex developments in Albania including the appointment of Prince William as King of Albania in March but the indomitable Colonel Phillips continued his governorship with his "restraining influence". In April, this influence was exercised as regards the complaints and protestations of the tribesman of north-eastern Albania who had in effect been isolated from their traditional market towns assigned to Servia by the London Conference. To appease them, Phillips distributed 'funds' however these were about exhausted leading to the belief that these tribesmen would therefore make frequent raids on the plains and villages of Servia, provoking a retaliation.
In the Alessio and Medua districts, these had been administered by Captain Sidney Goodall Francis, D.S.O., with detachments of the West Yorkshire Regiment, Austrian and Italian forces. It was now proposed that these districts were to be administered by an Albanian Civil Governor, negating to a large extent the confidence gained by Captain Francis of the local populace. Taxes had been difficult to collect in regards to the Ottoman Debt, the latter perplexing the Albanians as to why they should still pay now that Turkey had departed Albania. To acquire the payment of the debt, a Fish Tax was the method used but frequently the market had to be policed and surrounded on a number of occasions before payment could be collected. To this end, the replacement of Captain Francis indicated the potential future of the Alessio district, should the administration be withdrawn from Skutari. The writing was on the wall.
Still, the northern tribesmen objected to their incorporation with Montenegro. With Phillips continuing his management of affairs, it was with a certain degree of inevitability that trouble was on the horizon if the question of the frontier was not addressed. To be fair, the Montenegrins were openly provoking the Albanians, the former announcing that they were prepared to advance into Albania, if attacked, and march to within a distance of a ten kilometre radius of Scutari. As insurgency unfolded in Durazzo, it was discussed if it was feasable to send a detachment of the foreign contingents from Scutari to Durazzo to "protect the King and maintain order". It was a dilemma. If the stable position at Scutari was weakened, the unrest currently held at bay could indeed escalate into a full rebellion in northern Albania. In addition, rumours had also been circulating about discontent in central Albania. Events as regards the detachment of the West Yorkshire Regiment were now about to take a different turn as orders had now been issued for their relief and the return to Malta. With tensions still rising, Colonel Phillips would remain in Albania for the forseeable future.
The Return To Malta
Relieved by a detachment of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Latham Loring on the 4th of June, it was on the 9th after a voyage of twenty-four hours that the West Yorkshire Regiment detachment arrived at Malta onboard the cruiser H.M.S. Duke of Edinburgh. Upon rejoining the remainder of the Regiment, it was proposed that they would then proceed to India during the course of the 'relief season' but as further events unfolded in the Balkans, the situation as it stood remained unclear.
As friends renewed old acquaintances, orders had been issued for all available ships of the Mediterranean Fleet, under the command of Admiral Sir Berkeley Milne, to pepare for departure from Malta on the 13th instant for their 'summer cruise'. On the 8th, a day previous to the arrival of the West Yorkshire's, both H.M.S. Warrior and H.M.S. Defence of the 1st Cruiser Squadron, had departed Malta, it was rumoured, bound for Scutari. In fact, the Defence had proceeded to Durazzo under the command of Flag Captain Fawcett Wray on account of the developing situation, Warrior, sailing with the Mediterranean Fleet to Corfu. To Tom and his "pals" in the battalion, the comings and goings of these fine warships must have been a spectacle to behold but their was yet further developments on the 15th of June with a crisis looming between Greece and Turkey to all intents and purposes bringing them both to the eve of war. To this end, all Greek sailors stationed in Malta were ordered to hold themselves ready for immediate departure. Yet more ships arrived at Malta on the 21st; H.M.S. Sutlej, Wolverine, Scourge, Savage and Pincher whilst on this date, H.M.S. Racoon arrived at Durrazo. Celebrations for the King's birthday commenced at Malta on the 22nd of June whereupon all public buildings were festooned with Union Jacks and ships 'dressed,' a Royal Salute of twenty-one guns then being fired by the islands forts and the ships at their moorings.
Upon tensions still mounting between Greece and Turkey, the Greek Consul at Malta announced on the 24th that five classes of Greek Reservists were to return to Greece by the 27th of the month. It was reported freely in the press that rumours were circulating that Greece had purchased two american battleships. Where there is smoke, there is often fire and these rumours proved to be correct, the Greeks purchasing both the Mississipi and the Idaho that would subsequently be renamed the Kilkis and Lemnos respectively. As H.M.S. Pincher also departed for Durazzo on this date, one man, Lance-Sergeant Harry Teale, 8785, complained of distractions of a non military nature to the men of the 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment. The number of 'grog-shops' on the island, he pointed out, led to the temptation of excessive drinking. Not only was there temptaion to drink, there were also temptations of a different nature, many of these 'grog-shops' having female 'attractions' also. Outside of the Barracks Harry noted, there were few 'attractions' of what he referred to as those of a "better nature," such as a good music hall or a place of amusement, the same as to be found at home. If these amenities in his opinion were available, a man could spend his time in some 'harmless' amusement. In close proximity to the Barracks located at Floriana, there were a number of these 'establishments' that thrived on drink and "other evils," causing many a man to go "astray". Although a proporation of the men stationed on the island were of a temperance persuasion, Teale suggested to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Institute that the way forward in his opinion was to form a small committee "to discuss the question and suggest remedies".
It was on the 5th of July that the programme for Indian Transports for the season 1914 - 1915 was published by the War Office. It was proposed that the S.S. Dongola would depart home waters on the 1st of October 1914 with the 2nd Royal Irish Rifles bound for Malta. Upon the relief of the 2nd Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment, the latter would then depart for Karachi before taking up station at Dagshai, India. The prospect for some men spending yet more service in India was no doubt enough to 'drive one to drink' if you pardon the pun, however, it was noted in the Royal Army Temperance Association report dated March 1914 that the West Yorkshire's had a twenty percent membership of the Association from a battalion strength recorded as 957. Of course, this number predated the month of July but instances of drunkeness found by the Author during the course of this research appear to be minimal, the battalion, on the whole, maintaining a level of sobriety.
On the 18th of July, the King approved the appointment of Lieutenant-General Sir William Edmund Franklyn K.C.B. to be Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Malta in succession to General Sir Leslie Rundle, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O. and D.S.O. Franklyn it is worthy to note, had previously held the position of the Military Secretary to the Secretary for War and Secretary of the Selection Board at the War Office since 1911. There were also changes in the Navy at Malta when Rear-Admiral Henry Loftus Tottenham C.B. was appointed to be Admiral Superintendent of Malta Dockyard, succeeding Rear-Admiral Sackville Hamilton Carden.
As the storm clouds of war drew ever closer, it was on the 28th of July that Austrian subjects residing in Malta who were liable to serve in the Army or Navy received instructions to report to the Austro-Hungarian Consulate as a precursor to partial mobilisation. Just one month after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo, the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia. For the troops based at Malta, all leave was cancelled including the postponement of the departure of the Governor, as military and naval activity grew in intensity.